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Raymond V. Damadian, MD, conducted experiments and discovered that the various normal tissues and cancer tissue emit different radio signals when exposed to a magnetic field. He went on to build the first whole-body magnetic resonance scanner and to achieve the first MRI scan of the human body. Raymond V. Damadian, MD, conceived the idea of using NMR (MR) to detect medical disease and proposed the MR body scanner to accomplish it. To prove its feasibility, he conducted experiments and discovered that cancer tissues produce abnormal MR signals compared to normal tissues, with relaxation times that are markedly elevated relative to normal tissues. He also discovered that the healthy tissues themselves exhibit significant differences in MR relaxation times*. The relaxation differences among the normal tissues supply the contrast needed to see anatomic detail that was missing in other medical imaging technologies (x-ray and ultrasound). Recognizing that the abnormal MR signals generated by cancers could be used to detect cancers non-invasively, he went on to build the first whole body magnetic resonance scanner, which he named Indomitable, and to achieve the first MRI scan of the live human body, as well as the first scan of a patient with cancer. The tissue signals he discovered and their marked differences among the normal tissues and also between normal tissue and diseased tissue have remained the source of all MRI images today.

* The relaxation time differences between cancer tissue and normal tissue and within the normal tissues themselves were the result of differences in the mobility of the water molecules within cancer tissues, relative to their mobility within the normal tissues, and also to the differences in water mobility within the normal tissues themselves. The NMR signal decay time (relaxation time) of the water proton NMR signal is very sensitive to the degree of mobility of the highly mobile water molecules within the examined sample, e.g., the highly mobile water molecules within a sample of liquid water produce a T2 relaxation time of 3,000 milliseconds, while their immobilization in their positions in the crystal lattice of ice produce a T2 relaxation time of .019 milliseconds (a 157,000 times shorter T2 relaxation time for the immobilized water molecules of ice).

The development of the MRI was dependent on the appearance on the scene in 1969 of some MD, like Dr. Damadian, experienced BOTH in the clinical care of patients and in the technology of NMR. Up until that point, the NMR had been in use almost exclusively by chemists to perform test-tube analyses of chemical samples. The prospect of performing anything like the scan of a live human body with the existing 23 year old 2¼" NMR test-tube analyzer had never been imagined. Like any clinically experienced physician, however, Dr. Damadian was well aware of the painful experiences eventually endured by almost every physician during that time period i.e. learning unexpectedly at autopsy for the first time, of the existence of long standing and widespread fatal lesions within the body's vital organ soft tissues (e.g. brain, liver, heart, intestine, kidney…) that were being poorly visualized by the imaging technologies of the day (conventional x-ray) 1 and going UNDETECTED. Dr. Damadian concluded that much more sensitive DETECTION of lesions, such as cancer wherever they might have spread within the human body, would mean much better monitoring of the effectiveness of the pharmaceutical regimens being employed. More sensitive DETECTION would enable the addition of new treatment agents or further dosage adjustments, if the regimens in use were proving insufficient. In fact, as it has turned out, except for the abnormal NMR signals of diseased tissue discovered by Dr. Damadian, FATAL DISEASE like cancer would not be visible or detectable by any MRI.

1 [The CAT scan was not introduced until April 20, 1972 by J. Ambrose and G. Hounsfield at the Atkinson-Morley Hospital at the 32 Congress British Institute of Radiology in their paper "Computerized Axial Tomography (A new means of demonstrating some of the soft tissue structures of the brain without the use of contrast media)".]

NMR = MRI

MRI IS NMR RENAMED. Upon the advance of NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) technology into its medical applications, as a result of Dr. Damadian's discoveries, the medical community preferred the elimination of the word nuclear to avoid its radioactive connotations (that were non-existent) and the radiologic community sought to have the I added to denote NMR scanning as an imaging technology.

 


THE TRUTH OF HISTORY, CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS – THE SAME YEAR AS THE NOBEL PRIZE

MRI from Picture to Proton, Cambridge University Press, 2003“The initial concept for the medical application of NMR, as it was then called, originated with the discovery by Raymond Damadian in 1971 that certain mouse tumours displayed elevated relaxation times compared with normal tissues in vitro. This exciting discovery opened the door for a complete new way of imaging the human body where the potential contrast between tissues and disease was many times greater than that offered by X-ray technology and ultrasound.”

“So what were NMR researchers doing between the forties and the seventies - that's a long time in cultural and scientific terms. The answer: they were doing chemistry, including Lauterbur, a professor of chemistry at the same institution as Damadian. NMR developed into a laboratory spectroscopic technique capable of examining the molecular structure of compounds, until Damadian's ground-breaking discovery in 1971.”
(MRI from Picture to Proton, Cambridge University Press, 2003, p.2-4)

 

 


NOBEL VIOLATION OF THE TRUTH

In 2003, The Noble Prize for the MRI was awarded, not to Dr. Damadian, but to two nuclear magnetic resonance scientists. One employed a gradient, invented 50 years earlier by others, to improve the scanning method discovered by Dr. Damadian. Another was a member of a group who found a better way to use gradients to make an MRI image. Although the prize allowed for three winners, Dr. Damadian was excluded.

The award is a calculated affront to the truth of science.

It is also an affront to the will of Alfred Nobel, in which he specified that the award in medicine can only be given for “discovery,” not for technological improvements. (See Fig.19 Nobel Statutes)

Thankfully, the truth of history endures.

Raymond Damadian, MD  receiving the National Medal of Technology from Presiden Reagan1. THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES DISAGREES WITH THEM

He awarded the nation's highest honor in technology, the National Medal of Technology to Dr. Damadian and Dr. Lauterbur at the executive Offices of the White House in 1988 "For their independent contributions in conceiving and developing the application of magnetic resonance technology to medical uses including whole-body scanning and diagnostic imaging".

-President Ronald Reagan

Raymond V. Damadian's induction into the National Inventor's Hall of Fame
2. THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL INVENTOR'S HALL OF FAME DISAGREES WITH THEM

They inducted Dr. Raymond Damadian in 1989 to join Thomas Edison, Alexander Graham Bell, Samuel Morse, the Wright brothers and the other inventor legends of American history for his invention of "the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner, which has revolutionized the field of diagnostic medicine".

3. THE UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT (William Rehnquist, Chief Justice) AFTER 1.1 MILLION PAGES OF DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE DISAGREES WITH THEM.

 

 



Fonar-vs-GE Verdict

Lancet Article: The Nobel prize for MRI-a wonderful discovery and a sad controversy
Lancet Article: The Nobel prize for MRI-a wonderful discovery and a sad controversy

 

The First to Propose Scanning the Human Body (1969) by NMR (MRI)

SUNY Downstate Letter - Sept 17, 1969

SUNY Downstate Letter - Sept 17, 1969

SUNY Downstate Letter - Sept 17, 1969
Figure 1.

"I will make every effort myself and through collaborators, to establish that all tumors can be recognized by their potassium relaxation times or H2O-proton spectra and proceed with the DEVELOPMENT OF INSTRUMENTATION and PROBES that can be used to SCAN THE HUMAN BODY EXTERNALLY FOR EARLY SIGNS OF MALIGNANCY. DETECTION OF INTERNAL TUMORS DURING THE EARLIEST STAGES OF THEIR GENESIS SHOULD BRING US VERY CLOSE TO THE TOTAL ERADICATION OF THIS DISEASE "

 

The First to Propose Scanning the Human Body (Spring 1971) by NMR (MRI)

Downstate Reporter - Spring 1971

"But several years of work with NMR, together with its proven power in chemistry, have convinced Dr. Damadian that the technique WILL WORK ON SOMETHING AS COMPLEX AS THE HUMAN BODY. HE HOPES TO START PROVING HIS BELIEF BY BUILDING AND OPERATING HIS PLANNED LARGER MACHINE IN THE NEXT TWO YEARS"

Downstate Reporter - Spring 1971

Downstate Reporter - Spring 1971

Downstate Reporter - Spring 1971
Figure 2.

"The proposed NMR device FOR DETECTING CANCER IN HUMANS would not have to be highly elaborate, Dr. Damadian says. It would consist of a large coil to emit radio waves and a movable magnet to create the magnetic field required. THE COIL WOULD BE WRAPPED AROUND THE PATIENT'S CHEST, WHILE THE MAGNET PASSED BACK AND FORTH ACROSS THE BODY. A DETECTOR WOULD PICK UP NMR EMISSIONS FOR ANALYSIS."

Science Magazine -19 March 1971
Figure 3.

"At present, EARLY DETECTION of INTERNAL NEOPLASMS is hampered by the relatively high permeability of many tumors to x-rays. In principle, NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE (NMR) TECHNIQUES COMBINE MANY OF THE DESIRABLE FEATURES ON AN EXTERNAL PROBE FOR THE DETECTION ON INTERNAL CANCER."

 
The Signal Makes The
Image !

 

1. R. Damadian, Tumor Detection by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Science, 19 March 1971, Vol.171, pp. 1151-1153.


No Signal Differences: 1, NO IMAGE !

Raymond V. Damadian is the medical doctor who first proposed scanning medical patients by NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance, the original name of the MRI) based on his discovery of the principle on which all modern MRI is based – that different tissues emit different NMR signals in a magnetic field. The amplitude of these signals determines the brightness of the picture elements (pixels) that the MRI image is composed of.

The Signal

Signal Amplitude
Figure 4a.

The nucleus of the atom possesses a spin. Composed as it is of electrically charged components, protons, its nuclear spin generates a magnetic moment, i.e. the spinning hydrogen nucleus is therefore a two-pole (dipole) magnet with a north magnetic pole and a south magnetic pole. While much smaller, the magnetic fields generated by these spinning positively charged protons are analogous to the magnetic fields generated by their negatively charged counterparts, e.g. the magnetic fields generated by Faraday's induction when electrons spin or move in circular paths such as the magnetic fields generated along the axis of a circular loop of wire as electricity traverses a circular path.

When exposed to a magnetic field, these spinning nuclear magnets, e.g. the hydrogen protons of tissue water (H2O), line up with the magnetic field and quantize, i.e. separate into two populations, a low energy population that magnetically aligns parallel with the applied magnetic field of the MRI magnet and a less populous high energy population that aligns opposite (anti-parallel) to the main magnetic field. The separation into two energy groups, the low energy and the high energy group, generates the prospect of energy transitions between the two energy populations by the application of additional energy, e.g. the application of additional magnetic energy provided by an oscillating energy source such as a radio frequency. Radio Frequency signals (r.f.), are oscillating electro-magnetic fields. In the case of NMR (MR), the magnetic component of the radiofrequency signal is the component that provides the energy necessary to excite some of the low energy nuclear magnet population into the high energy nuclear population. This nuclear resonance stimulation is achieved in practice with an r.f. transmitter coil that encircles the human body to provide this oscillating magnetic energy in order to excite some of the low energy nuclei (e.g. hydrogen protons of tissue water (H2O)) to transition to the high energy population.

When the transmitter is shut off, the excited (high energy) nuclear spins emit their absorbed radio energy in order to return to their low energy equilibrium (resting) state. The emitted energy is then captured by a radio receiver coil wrapped around the human body. The excitation radiofrequency is tuned to the frequency needed to supply the exact energy (the resonant frequency) necessary to convert the low energy nuclear spins to high energy spins.

As seen in the above Figure 4a (the nuclear signal) the signal captured by the receiver coil decays over time (its "relaxation time") until the original excitation energy that excited the low energy nuclear spin into the high energy state is fully dissipated. The time to complete dissipation of the original excitation energy is called its "relaxation time". This "relaxation time" varies markedly with the local anatomic and chemical environment in which the signal generating nuclear magnet resides (e.g. the T2 relaxation time of a water proton in its liquid form is 3,000 mseconds while the same T2 relaxation time for a water proton in ice is .019 mseconds). Accordingly, the decay time (relaxation time) of the water proton NMR signal is very sensitive to any anatomic changes of tissue structure. As discovered by Damadian, the tissue structure changes in the immediate vicinity of the resonating proton that accompany tissue disease or the tissue structure variations within the normal organs themelves (heart muscle, liver, intestine, etc.— Figure 6) profoundly affect the relaxation time of this nuclear magnetic signal.

Science-1971 table 1

Science-1971 table 2
Tables 1 & 2.

R. Damadian, Tumor Detection by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Science, 19 March 1971, Vol.171, Tables 1 & 2, pp. 1151-1153. Raymond V. Damadian is the medical doctor who first proposed scanning medical patients by NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance, the original name of the MRI) based on his discovery of the principle on which all modern MRI is based — the different NMR signals that tissues emit in a magnetic field. The amplitude of these signals determines the brightness of the picture elements (pixels) that the MRI image is composed of.

Small tissue volume producing NMR signal
Figure 4b.

A live NMR signal such as that generated by a small tissue volume connected to an oscilloscope and an audio amplifier so that an example of an NMR signal that generates the MRI image can be directly visualized and heard. [ Click on Sine Wave to Listen ]

THE STRENGTH OF THE SIGNAL1 SETS
THE
PIXEL BRIGHTNESS !

1. The computed strength of the signal (the amplitude) is determined by the signal's decay time (relaxation time). The longer the relaxation time the greater the signal amplitude and the greater the brightness of the picture elements (pixels) that compose the image.

The Signal Makes The Image:
No Signal Differences1, No Image.

1. R. Damadian, Tumor Detection by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Science, 19 March 1971, Vol.171, pp. 1151-1153. Raymond V. Damadian is the medical doctor who first proposed scanning medical patients by NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance, the original name of the MRI) based on his discovery of the principle on which all modern MRI is based — the different NMR signals that tissues emit in a magnetic field. The amplitude of these signals determines the brightness of the picture elements (pixels) that the MRI image is composed of.

NO SIGNAL DIFFERENCES

 

AND ...

 

THE IMAGE IS A BLANK !!

MRI image vs. CT image
Figure 5.

Note the soft tissue detail visualized in the MRI image #1 of the brain that is not visualized by x-ray CT technology (e.g. the pronounced white matter-grey matter differentiation of the MRI, the clearly defined thalamic nuclei, and the well visualized subdural layers not visualized by CT.) MRI image #2 shows an image of the brain where all the MR signals of the brain tissue are the same. (i.e. no signal difference from the TISSUES of the BRAIN. No grey matter -white matter differentation, no caudate nucleus, no putamen, no thalamus.) In the absence of the MR signal differences of the normal tissues discovered by Damadian (Fig.6, Fig.9) the MRI image of normal human anatomy is a blank (MRI #2).

NO SIGNAL DIFFERENCES:
THE IMAGE IS A BLANK
 
THE SIGNAL MAKES THE IMAGE !!
 
NO SIGNAL DIFFERENCES: 1,
NO IMAGE !!
 
AND
 
NO ANATOMIC DETAIL
VISIBLE !!!
(Fig 5 - MRI #2)
 
 

Paul C. Lauterbur's Notebook
9-2-1971

J. Mattson and M. Simon, The Pioneers of NMR and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Medicine: The Story of MRI Bar-Ilan University Press, 1996, Appendix, Chapter 9, B1,B2,B3.


Lauterbur-letter

Lauterbur letter

Lauterbur letter

As Lauterbur published [Cancer 57, (15 May 1986), p.1899 ]
"the attention of the medical community was first attracted by the report of Damadian1 that some animal tumors have remarkably long proton NMR relaxation times. Efforts to reproduce these results and to explore their significance were soon under way in other laboratories."

"It was measurements that I (Lauterbur) observed Saryan carring out in SEPTEMBER OF 1971 that caught my attention." [Cancer 57 (15 May 1986) p.1899.

"When Lauterbur watched Saryan successfully repeat the Damadian experiments, he viewed the procedure with great interest and was impressed by the results"2.

He (Lauterbur) Stated:
"Even normal tissues differed markedly among themselves in NMR relaxation times, and I wondered whether there might be some way to noninvasively map out such quanties within the body " [Cancer 57, (15 May 1986), p.1899

There was nothing to MAP prior to Damadian's discovery. The NMR signal differences in normal and diseased tissues necessary to forming such a MAP were not known to exist prior to Damadian's discovery of their existence1. In their absence any such MAP would be a BLANK ! (figs. 5 and 14).

1. R. Damadian "Tumor Detection by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance"
Science, 19 March 1971, Vol. 171. pp.1151 - 1152.

2. J. Mattson and M. Simon, The Pioneers of NMR and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Medicine: The Story of MRI
Bar-Ilan University Press, 1996, p.712, 714.

BUT THERE WAS AN
UNEXPECTED
FINDING !!

The Discovery of the Abnormal Cancer MR Relaxations
Figure 6.

To determine if the tumor MR signal was abnormal the MR signals of the normal tissues had to be measured. Unexpectedly the normal tissues also differed markedly in their signal decay times (T1 relaxation times) e.g. the relaxation time of intestine was 257 mseconds as compared to 595 mseconds for brain with the other normal tissue relaxation times lying in between.

EXTRAORDINARY
IMAGE
DETAIL !!

The result of this discovery; the pronounced relaxation time differences among the normal tissues themselves produced an unprecented visualization of anatomic detail in medical images that had never been possible before by the existing x-ray imaging technology.

CT image Vs. MRI Image
Figure 7.

As can be seen in the above T1 image of the brain the NMR relaxation differences discovered by Damadian made possible the imaging of the human body at a level of detail that was unprecedented in medical history.

The grey-white matter discrimination of the brain became visible for the first time. The thalamic nuclei, the caudate, putamen and thalamus were visualized. The Dura, layers and arachnoid layers became visible where they were not on x-ray images like CT.

Fig. 12a-12d. Further examples of the exceptional anatomic detail made visible by the discovery of Damadian of the pronounced differences in the decay rates (relaxations) of the NMR signals of the body's normal tissues.
Figure 8.

Figure 8a-8d. Further examples of the exceptional anatomic detail made visible by the discovery of Damadian of the pronounced differences in the decay rates (relaxations) of the NMR signals of the body's normal tissues (Figure 6). The discovered differences supply the pixel amplitude differences (contrast) that produce the detailed visualization of normal human anatomy MRI is noted for. Note the visualization of the vestibular and cochlear nerves within the internal auditory canel (Figure 8b) and the visualization of the hypothalamic tract (that transports hormones from the brain within the pituitary stalk. (Figure 8c)

Normal Signal vs. Cancer Signal
Figure 9.

Illustration of the MR signal decay rate differences of cancer and normal.

Damadian discovered that the NMR signal amplitudes of cancer tissue differ markedly from the NMR signal amplitudes of the normal tissues because of the differences in their rate of decay.

Above is an example of the difference in the decay rate of an NMR signal from cancer tissue relative to the decay rate of a normal tissue (Tables 1 & 2). The longer the signal decay the higher the signal amplitude computed from the NMR signal. The amplitude of the tissue NMR signal sets the brightness of the pixel (picture element) in the image assigned to it as exemplified in the pixels displaying the cerebellar tumor of figure 10.

The Discovery of the Abnormal Cancer MR Relaxations
Figure 6.

The discovery of the abnormal relaxations rates of cancers as seen in the above malignant hepatoma and Walker sarcoma T1 decay times (yellow)

 
Which Resulted in
Exceptional
Tumor
Definition, Visability and Detectability

An MRI Image of a Tumor of the Brain, and Acoustic Neuroma

 

Science-1971 table 1

Science-1971 table 2
Tables 1 & 2.

R. Damadian, Tumor Detection by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Science, 19 March 1971, Vol.171, Tables 1 & 2, pp. 1151-1153. Raymond V. Damadian is the medical doctor who first proposed scanning medical patients by NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance, the original name of the MRI) based on his discovery of the principle on which all modern MRI is based — the different NMR signals that tissues emit in a magnetic field. The amplitude of these signals determines the brightness of the picture elements (pixels) that the MRI image is composed of.

pixels of an MRI image
Figure 10.

A Step-wise enlargement of an image of a cerebellar tumor of the brain exhibiting the picture elements (pixels) that make up the image.

 
Fig 5. The Discovery of the Abnormal Cancer MR Relaxation Fig.6. He discovered that the NMR signal amplitudes of cancer tissue differ markedly from the NMR signal amplitudes of the normal tissues because of the differences in their rate of decay.

Figure 6. Original 1971 data in Science showing the lengthening of the decay time (relaxation time) of the NMR signal of cancer relative to normal (e.g. liver cancer 826 milliseconds (msecs) vs 293 msecs normal liver, 736 msecs Walker Sarcoma vs. 538 msecs normal muscle). The data additionally shows the pronounced differences in the NMR signal decay rates of the normal tissues (e.g. 257 msecs intestine vs. 595 msecs for brain).

 

 

 

Figure 9. He discovered that the NMR signal amplitudes of cancer tissue differ markedly from the NMR signal amplitudes of the normal tissues because of the differences in their rate of decay.

The above is an example of the difference in the decay rate of an NMR signal from cancer tissue relative to the decay rate of a normal tissue. The longer the signal decay the higher the signal amplitude computed from the NMR signal. The amplitude of the tissue NMR signal sets the brightness of the pixel (picture element) in the image assigned to it as exemplified in the pixels displaying the cerebellar tumor of figure 10.

 

 

Fig 8. Brain Tumor

T1 Image

T2 Image
Figure 11. Brain Tumor

T2 Image

Fig. 9.Tumor Metastasis to Bone Fig.10. Liver Tumor

T2 Image


Figure 12. Tumor Metastasis to Bone

T2 Image

T2 Image

             Figure 13. Liver Tumor

These signal amplitude differences enabled cancer tissues (Figures 11-13) and other tissues to be visualized in MRI images because the signal differences generate the needed brightness differences (contrast) in the picture elements (pixels) needed to visualize detail in the MRI image.

The contrast in pixel brightness allows the cancer pixels in the image to be distinguished from the surrounding normal pixels. (Figs 11-13)

NO SIGNAL DIFFERENCES

ALL THE IMAGE PIXELS
ARE EQUALLY BRIGHT !

 

THE TUMOR IS
INVISIBLE !!

Figure 4. Pixel demonstration
Figure 14.

The cerebellar tumor as it would appear (14-D) with no MR signal differences. Figure 14-D is the same image as Figure 14-B but where all MR signal differences were eliminated and all the MR pixels therefore had the same pixel brightness. The absence of the MR signal differences between cancer and normal tissue discovered by Damadian gives the MR image pixels equal brightness and

NO SIGNAL DIFFERENCES:
THE IMAGE IS A BLANK
 
THE SIGNAL MAKES THE IMAGE !!
 
NO SIGNAL DIFFERENCES: 1,
NO IMAGE !!
 
AND
 
THE TUMOR IS
INVISIBLE !!
(Fig 14D)

 

But what about
scanning for cancer?

Science Paper 1971
Figure 15.

 
the ‘832 PATENT

“Apparatus and Method
for Detecting Cancer in Tissue”


(the first patent on MRI)

 

US Patent 3,789,832

“Apparatus and Method
for Detecting Cancer in Tissue”


Filed March 1972

U.S. Patent 3,789,832
Figure 16a.

U.S. Patent 3,789,832
Figure 16b.

 
832-The first of 4552 Patents on MRI


(as of 2/21/13)

Figure 17a.
 '832-The first of 4552 Patents on MRI 

US MRI Patents List
Fig. 17b.

The above is the listing of all of the titles of the 4552 patents (as of 2/21/13) issued for MRI by the United States Patent Office following Dr. Damadian's original '832 patent for MRI (filed March 17, 1972).

The above is the first page of the title list of the 4552 patents issued by the United States Patent Office beginning with the most recently issued patent for MRI (as of 2/21/13).
Fig. 17c.

The above is the first page of the title list of the 4552 patents issued for MRI by the United States Patent Office beginning with the most recently issued patent (as of 2/21/13).

The above is the first page of the title list of the 4552 patents issued by the United States Patent Office beginning with the most recently issued patent for MRI (as of 2/21/13).
Fig. 17d.

The conclusion of the title listing of the 4552 patents issued for MRI by the United States Patent Office (as of 2/21/13) following Dr. Damadian's original patent for MRI that inaugurated the MRI industry. [U.S. Patent "Apparatus and Method For Detecting Cancer in Tissue". #3,789,832. Filed March 17, 1972].

 
US Patent 3,789,832

Upheld by the United
States Supreme Court
Oct 6, 1997

 

But not always smooth sailing !

MR sample in standard 2 1/4 inch MR magnet
Figure 18.
The standard 23 year old 2 ¼" NMR Test-Tube Analyser used by chemists
for ascertaining the molecule composition of aqueous solutions.

The standard NMR(MR) test-tube analyzer, utilized by NMR spectroscopists at the time had a two and 1/4 inch gap between the magnet poles to accept test-tube samples. It was the only NMR apparatus in existence at the time Dr. Damadian did his original NMR (MR) test-tube analyses of normal and cancerous tissue samples to see if a disease (cancer) differentiating NMR signal could be experimentally demonstrated that would enable his concept of a cancer detecting NMR(MR) body scanner to proceed.

Telling someone looking at this apparatus that it should be used to scan the human body was regarded as absurd. The giant magnets to do it did not exist. The rf antennas needed to accomplish detecting a less than 1mm tumor inside the body also did not exist. They were a major concern.

The sample tube is non-invasively wrapped with an external transmitter-receiver coil to stimulate and receive nuclear resonance signals from the sample.

Tissue sample in magnet
Figure 19a.

With the same tissue sample as in the above illustration but now 10" removed from the proposed MR antenna envisioned for a body MR scanner, and where the MR signal itself was not all that strong and readily lost by the slightest mispositioning of the sample within the magnet the prospect of successfully acquiring an MR signal with an external antenna from a 1mm tissue sample deep within the human body was a major uncertainty.

At the time the idea (1971) of taking a 2¼ inch test-tube analyzer and turning it into a scanner of the live human body was deemed absurd.

“THEREFORE ANY FURTHER DISCUSSION
ABOUT SCANNING THE HUMAN BODY BY
NMR IS VISIONARY NONSENSE ”


This was the conclusion of an NMR scientist at the National Cancer Institute's Cancer Diagnosis Conference (1976) after his successful repeat of Dr. Damadian's demonstration of the prolonged relaxations of the NMR signals of cancerous tissues and his additional observations that non-malignant diseased tissues also had prolonged NMR relaxations. He had however overlooked that both cancerous and non-cancerous diseased tissue NMR signals were markedly prolonged relative to normal making the pixels of both diseased tissue types conspicuously brighter than normal and eminently visible by MRI.

Figure 19b.

At a subsequent conference of NMR scientists where Dr. Damadian had been invited to present his NMR findings in cancer, one of the NMR scientists in the audience stood to ask


“ NOW DOCTOR HOW FAST DO YOU
PROPOSE
TO SPIN THE PATIENT ?”*

* (Spinning the test tube sample at high rpm was a standard in NMR spectroscopy for overcoming the magnetic field inhomogeneities that the protons of the test tube sample were exposed to)

Figure 19c.

 

Construction of the First Human MR Scanner, Indomitable, Begins.

Michael Goldsmith and Michael Stanford winding one of the two Niobium Titanium (NbTE) superconducting magnet coils built for Indomitable.
Figure 20a.

Michael Goldsmith and Michael Stanford winding one of the two Niobium Titanium (NbTi) superconducting magnet coils built for Indomitable.

Michael Goldsmith and Nean Hu with the liquid helium cryogen chamber that housed the NbTi superconductiong magnet coil.
Figure 20b.

Michael Goldsmith and Nean Hu with the liquid helium cryogen chamber that housed the NbTi superconductiong magnet coil.

Left to Right, Raymond Damadian, Larry Minkoff and Michael Goldsmith alongside live magnet  Indomitable
Figure 20c.

Left to Right, Raymond Damadian, Larry Minkoff and Michael Goldsmith alongside "live magnet" Indomitable with the iced liquid helium port on the top of the magnet alongside of the two helium cooling liquid nitrogen ports.

Dr. Damadian in Indomitable for the first attempt at a human MR scan
Figure 20d.

Dr. Damadian in Indomitable for the first attempt at a human MR scan with his chest surrounded by the largest diameter antenna (14" diameter) that Dr. Goldsmith had been able to build at the time that could still successfully generate any MR signal from an interior sample. Also pictured is an adjacent cardiac defibrillator to counter any emergencies that might arise and a cardiologist to administer it if necessary. The scan attempt on Dr. Damadian failed. All that was obtained was a normal EKG. The Goldsmith hypothesis for the failed scan was Dr. Damadian was "too fat" for his coil.

Larry Minkoff finally gets into Indomitable
Figure 20e.

Larry Minkoff finally gets into Indomitable (weeks later) to test the Goldsmith "too fat" hypothesis.

 
4:45 AM
July 3, 1977

First MR scan notebook data
Figure 21.

First ever MR image of the human body, a cross-section of L. Minkoff's chest at the level of T-8
Figure 22.

FIRST EVER MR IMAGE OF THE HUMAN BODY !! A cross-section of L. Minkoff's chest at the level of T-8 showing chest walls, lungs, heart, aorta and vertebra, and the suggestion of cardiac chambers within the heart that was initially put down as too good to be true.

Fig.21. July 3, 1977 the 4:45 AM jubilation of team Indomitable.
Figure 23.

The exhilaration of team Indomitable at 4:45 AM July 3, 1977.

Hallelujah !
 
 
Damadian's "Visionary Nonsense" had been reduced to reality !
A 2¼ inch test-tube analyzer (Fig. 18) of 23 years duration had been
 
TRANSFORMED !
 
to a scanner of the live human body
 
MRI WAS BORN !!!
 
2nd MAJOR DISCOVERY
 
Exceptional Detail in Medical Images for the First Time in History
 
Clear Visualization of the Body's Vital Organs
 
T1 and T2
Revolutionize Medical Imaging
 
The T1 and T2* tissue differences
discovered by Damadian
Revolutionize Medical Imaging
 
Providing for the first time in all of history
(Fig.6, Tables 1 & 2)
 
detailed visualization (pictures) of the life-giving vital organs of the human body and their diseases (i.e Brain, Heart, Spine, Muscles, Liver, Kidney, Spleen Pancreas, Intestines ...)
 
EXCLUDED BY THE NP !
 
* Damadian's discovery of their profound differences within the vital life-giving tissues of the human body that enabled his idea of the NMR scanning of the live human being. (Damadian, R. "Tumor Detection by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance", Science, March 19, 1971, 171, 1151-1153)
 
 

Damadian's discovery of the "signal that makes the image" provided another Vital Discovery. It provided, for the first time in medical history, the power to achieve clear visualization of the body's vital organs.

Prior to the advent of MRI, medical imaging from its x-ray inception in 1895 was uniquely deficient in its ability to achieve satisfactory (and necessary) visualization of the life-sustaining organs of the human body (the heart, brain, liver, kidney, pancreas...). X-ray technology was significantly limited in its ability to achieve soft tissue (e.g. the body's vital organs) discrimination due to the small x-ray transmission differences of x-ray radiation across the body's soft tissues (unlike the transmission difference between bone and soft tissue that generate pronounced image contrast on x-ray images and excellent visualization of bone on x-ray images). The difference in x-ray transmission across the body's soft tissues, and therefore the ability to generate the necessary pixel contrast in x-ray images to visualize detail in the body's soft tissue vital organs, was severely limited (4% or less).

Damadian's discovery of the NMR signal differences that provided the MRI visualization and detection of diseased tissue (Fig. 6, Tables 1 & 2) overcame this deficiency also. He discovered that the NMR signal differences among the body's NORMAL soft tissues (brain, muscle, kidney, liver, stomach, intestine) were also pronounced (Fig. 6, Tables 1 & 2) (e.g. small intestine 257msecs, brain 595 msecs, Fig. 6). These large NMR signal differences in the body's NORMAL soft tissues, discovered by Damadian, overcame, for the first time, medical imaging's longstanding deficiency in its visualization of the body's soft tissue vital organs (Figs. 7, 8).

 
T1 and T2 Imaging

T1 and T2 existed nowhere in the practice of medicine until AFTER Damadian's discovery of their power for detecting disease

 


In NMR, two ways exist with which to characterize the nuclear signal response of the resonating atomic nucleus. You can analyze either the frequency dependence of the nuclear signal (NMR spectroscopy) or its time dependence, i.e., its rate of decay (relaxation time). Both characterizations are manifestly informative but until the Damadian discovery of the key sensitivity of the decay time of the nuclear resonance signal to the existence of disease within medical tissues, the overwhelming majority of the uses of NMR technology (prior to its medical application by Damadian) were its chemical applications (NMR spectroscopy) for determining, non-destructively, the molecular composition of organic molecules.

Thus the nuclear resonance signal has two properties, its frequency response to excitation and the time dependence of the nuclear signal's response to excitation, that are very informative regarding the chemical composition of molecules and their surroundings.

Regarding the time dependencies of the nuclear resonance signal, there are two, one of which is eminently visible in the oscilloscopic display of the signal as a function of time (T2) (Figs. 4a and 4b), and a second, usually not visible, that is a measure of the time required by the stimulated nucleus to return to its equilibrium state after its excitation (T1). The times of these two time-dependent nuclear signal responses, T1 and T2, commonly differ markedly, e.g., T1 = 538msecs in muscle, T2 = 55msecs in muscle (Table 1).

The Time Dependent Decay (relaxation) of the Nuclear Resonance Signal

In the time dependence characterization of the nuclear resonance signal, two time dependent phenomena are experimentally encountered, the rate of dissipation (T1) of the stimulating energy (the r.f. pulse) after it has been applied and generated the NMR signal and the rate at which the individual signals generated by each resonating nucleus within the sample dephase and destructively cancel the composite resonant signal of the individual nuclear resonance signals (T2).

The T1 Relaxation

The T1 decay rate (its T1 relaxation time) is the time of dissipation, e.g., muscle T1 = 538msecs. Table 1, to the surroundings (the "lattice"), of the r.f. pulse energy used to stimulate the NMR signal; i.e., the "spin-lattice relaxation time": the "thermal relaxation time".

The T2 Relaxation

The T2 decay rate (its T2 relaxation time) is the time rate of decay of the live NMR signal (Figs. 4a and 4b) actually observed on the oscilloscope, e.g. muscle T2 = 55msecs. Table 1. It is the time for the destructive interferences of the phase incoherencies of all of the NMR signals generated by the individual atoms within the sample to reduce the magnitude of the observed composite signal to zero (Figs. 4a and 4b).

Noteworthy is the fact that the great majority of all MRI images acquired today are either T1 or T2 weighted images (80-90%). The use of such T1 and T2 relaxation dependent images explicity exploit the benefit of the Damadian discovery 2 that the T1 and T2 signal relaxations exhibit the most pronounced (and therefore most visible) discriminations among the body's normal and diseased tissues as compared to their differences in hydrogen content (proton density images). 80 - 90% of all patient MRI scans performed today utilize either T1 (T1 weighted) or T2 (T2 weighted) imaging protocols. With approximately 15 million patient MRI scans being performed each year in the U.S. and an equal number being performed each year in the rest of the world, 30 million T1 (or T2) MRI images are being performed worldwide each year using the original T1 and T2 tissue MR (NMR) signal differences discovered by Damadian.

These MR signal T1 and T2 differences of diseased tissue (EXCLUDED by the NP3) as well as the T1 and T2 differences of the MR signals of normal tissues (EXCLUDED by the NP), are THE SIGNALS THE MRI MAKES THE IMAGE WITH (the signals used by the MR scanner to construct the MRI images). Without these tissue MR signals differences discovered by Damadian that are used to construct the MRI image, there would be no MRI today.

With each T1 or T2 scan consisting of approximately 15 image slices (15 images/scan) per patient scan, 30 image slices are being acquired from each patient for both scan types (T1 and T2) and 360,000,000 (450,000,000 x .8 - or approximately 3.6 billion in the past ten years) T1 or T2 images are therefore being acquired world-wide each year for the benefit of humanity, thanks to the T1/T2 NMR signal tissue relaxation differences discovered by Damadian.

Indeed, the MR signal T1 and T2 differences of the MR signals of diseased and normal tissues discovered by Damadian (and EXCLUDED by the NP) make all the T1 (T1 weighted) and the T2 (T2 weighted) images of MRI.

While the imaging techniques awarded the NP have long been replaced4, the T1 and T2 images based on Damadian's discovery (and EXCLUDED by the NP) continue to produce every MRI patient examination in the world that is acquired today. Indeed, it is difficult to imagine, for example, how the T2 MRI scan originated by the Damadian discovery (and EXCLUDED by the NP) that visualizes all diseased tissues wherever they might occur within the human body can ever be replaced. It is in fact hard to envision how it will not persist as the forever component of the patient MRI Examination while the initial techniques5 to make use of the tissue MR (NMR) signals discovered by Damadian to make the image have long been replaced6.

MRI of Barin Tumor
Figure 11.
T2 MRI visualization of a tumor of the brain made possible by the discovery of Damadian of the abnormal T2 (and T1) MR (NMR) relaxations of cancerous tissue.


 
 

T1 and T2 Citations

2
Damadian, R., Tumor Detection by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Science, 171:1151-1153, 1971
3
Nobel Prize
4
By phase contrast frequency scanning
5
Lauterbur, P.C. (1973) Nature, 242:190-191 (NP 2003) (PhD. 1962): Garroway, A.N., Grannell, P.K., Mansfield P. (1974) (PhD. 1962) J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys., 7:L457-L462, (NP 2003)
6
Regarding Paul Lauterbur and Peter Mansfield, recipients of the NP, both had been working in the field of NMR for nine (9) years prior to Damadian's discovery5. Neither conceived of the idea of scanning the human body by NMR nor provided the means to bring it about by discovering the tissue NMR signal differences that made it happen. Neither did anything in the field of NMR scanning for nine (9) years until AFTER Damadian first conceived of the NMR body scanner (1969) and published the means (the signals) to accomplish it (1971).

 

2nd MAJOR DISCOVERY
 
( EXCLUDED BY THE N.P.)
 
BEST IMAGE QUALITY IN MEDICAL HISTORY !
 
The SIGNAL MAKES THE IMAGE !
 
The NMR Signal Differences of the Body's Vital Organs
Discovered by Damadian (Fig 6)
 
Overcame a Historical Major Deficiency in Medical Imaging
 
Unsatisfactory Visualization of the Body's Critical Vital Organs (Brain, Heart, Kidney, Liver, Intestine ...
 
Because of Damadian's profound discovery,
 
the
PRONOUNCED NMR
signal differences
 
of the
body's CRITICAL TISSUES
(Fig 6, Tables 1 & 2),
 
its
life-sustaining
soft tissue vital organs (brain, heart, liver, spinal cord, intestines, etc)
 
can be
visualized in detail on a medical image.
 
for the
FIRST TIME IN HISTORY !!!
 
The NMR signal differences of the body's vital organs, discovered by Damadian (Fig 6, Tables 1 & 2), supply the missing anatomic detail that had been lacking in medical images for more than a century
(Roentgen 1895)
 
A 131% signal difference (brain vs. small intestine, Fig 6) replaced a maximum 4% soft tissue difference available from x-ray
 
sagittal knee MRI MRI of the foot
   
Shoulder MRI Wrist MRI
   
MRI of the Knee Knee MRI
   
Prostate MRI Cine
The Prostate
without an Endorectal Probe
The Heart
T1 MRI of the Prostate T2 MRI of the Prostate
Prostate: Delineation of Peripheral Zones (PZ), Cortical Zone (CZ) and Vescicles without an Endorectal Coil.
   
MRI of the L-spine MRI of the L-spine
Cervical Spine
Upright Neutral
Upright Extension
Unsuspected Disc Herniation in Extension
Liver MRI MRI of the T2 Axial Liver
The Liver, Kidney and Small Intestine
Bladder and Uterus in Pelvic Floor Dysfunction (PFD)
Bladder and Uterus in Pelvic Floor Dysfunction (PFD)
Recumbent LSP
Upright, Weight-Bearing Lumbar MRI
Lumbar Spine
Recumbent, Weightless     
Upright, Weight-Bearing

Fig. 12a-12d. Further examples of the exceptional anatomic detail made visible by the discovery of Damadian of the pronounced differences in the decay rates (relaxations) of the NMR signals of the body's normal tissues.
Figure 8.

Figure 8a-8d. Further examples of the exceptional anatomic detail made visible by the discovery of Damadian of the pronounced differences in the decay rates (relaxations) of the NMR signals of the body's normal tissues (Figure 6). The discovered differences supply the pixel amplitude differences (contrast) that produce the detailed visualization of normal human anatomy MRI is noted for. Note the visualization of the vestibular and cochlear nerves within the internal auditory canel (Figure 8b) and the visualization of the hypothalamic tract (that transports hormones from the brain within the pituitary stalk. (Figure 8c)

Lumbar Disc Herniation
Lumbar Disc Herniation

A Commitment to Bacis Principles in Evolving MRI Magnet Technology
Figure 24.

Dr. Erik Odeblad Letter

Merril Simon - Co-author
" The Pioneers of NMR and Magnetic Resonance in Medicine - The Story of MRI", James Mattson and Merrill Simon
Bar-Ilan University Press, 1969


 
On the Accomplishment of the World's First MRI Scan
of the Live Human Body 7/3/1977

On the Accomplishment of the World's First MRI Scan
Figure 25.

Szent-Gyorgyi telegram to Raymond Damadian
Figure 26.

Nicolaas Bloembergen Quote
Figure 27.

Furchgott letter to Damadian
Figue 28.

Letter to the Nobel Committee
Letter to the Nobel Committee
 letter to the Nobel Committee

"We are perplexed, disappointed and  angry  about the uncomprehensible exclusion of Professor Raymond Damadian M.D. from this year's Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. MRI's entire development rests on the shoulders of Damadian's discovery of NMR proton relaxation differences among normal and diseased tissues and his proposal of external scanning of NMR relaxation differences in the human body, published in Science in 1971"

Eugene Feigelson, M.D.
Dean of the College of Medicine
SUNY Downstate Medical Center
Distinguished Service Professor
Senior Vice President for Biomedical Education and Research

Figure 29.

Figures 30a-30c. First ever MRI images of patients with cancer (1978)
(obtained on Indomitable)

Figure 23a. FONAR scan at the level of 1-3/4 in below Angle of Lewis in a man 46 years old with pulmonary oat cell carcinoma. Tumour indicated by light blue infiltrate in left lung field, which should be black as it is in right lung cavity. Midline structure (red) separating the two lung cavities is the cross section through the arch of the aorta.

Figure 30a. FONAR scan at the level of 1-3/4 inches below the Angle of Lewis, by the method of Indomitable1, (Figs 20c and 20e) in a man 46 years old with pulmonary oat cell carcinoma. Tumour indicated by light blue infiltrate in left lung field, which should be black as it is in right lung cavity. Midline structure (red) separating the two lung cavities is the cross section through the arch of the aorta.
( Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society of London B, 1980, Vol. 289, pg 498, plate 2, figure 13.)

Figure 23b. FONAR cross-sectional scan through the thorax at the level of the 3rd intercostal space in a patient with an adenocarcinoma of the breast that metastasized to the right lung. The tumor is seen as a band of signal-producing tissue (light blue) bridging the right lung cavity. The tortuous structure separating the right and left lung cavities is the aortic arch. (1978) (Scanning time: 36 min.)

Figure 30b. FONAR cross-sectional scan through the thorax at the level of the 3rd intercostal space, by the method of Indomitable1, (Figs 20c and 20e) in a patient with an adenocarcinoma of the breast that metastasized to the right lung. The tumor is seen as a band of signal-producing tissue (light blue) bridging the right lung cavity. The tortuous structure separating the right and left lung cavities is the aortic arch. (1978) (Scanning time: 36 min.)
( Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society of London B, 1980, Vol. 289, pg 497, plate 3, figure 15. (color version))

Figure 23c. FONAR cross-sectional scan through the low chest (10th thoracic vertebra) in a patient with advanced alveolar cell carcinoma. The tumor is seen as intense signal-producing tissue (red, and less signal-intense light blue) invading both lung cavities and obliterating the bulk of the air space. (1978) (Scanning time: 30 min.)

Figure 30c. FONAR cross-sectional scan through the low chest (10th thoracic vertebra), by the method of Indomitable1, (Figs 20c and 20e) in a patient with advanced alveolar cell carcinoma. The tumor is seen as intense signal-producing tissue (red, and less signal-intense light blue) invading both lung cavities and obliterating the bulk of the air space. (1978) (Scanning time: 30 min.)
( Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society of London B, 1980, Vol. 289, pg 497, plate 3, figure 14. (color version))

 

 

1978
First Commercial MRI Company Founded
FONAR Corporation
Figure 24. First-ever commercial MRI the FONAR QED 80. The FONAR QED 80 was equipped with a computer driven patient transport system to automate the manual three-dimensional step-wise scanning proceedure utilized by Indomitable (Indomitable transport apparatus Figs. 13-15)

Figure 31. First-ever commercial MRI the FONAR QED 80. The FONAR QED 80 was equipped with a computer driven patient transport system (Vertical white bed mount pictured at the front of the QED 80 scanner) to automate the manual three-dimensional step-wise scanning procedure utilized by Indomitable1. (Indomitable transport apparatus Figs. 20c & 20e)

Figure 25. Carcinoma of the left upper lobe with peripheral consolidation.

Figure 32. "Carcinoma of the left upper lobe with peripheral consolidation". Images published by Drs. Ross, Lie, Thompson & Associates from their FONAR QED 80 MRI scanner installed in their radiology practice in Clevelend, Ohio. QED 80 images were acquired by the step-wise 3D patient translocation method of Indomitable1.
(Radiology Nuclear Medicine Magazine, June 1981, cover)

1. The 3D step-wise translocation of the patient across the magnetically focused resonance aperture. The resonance aperture was achieved by focussing the "near field" magnetic component of the transmitted rf (U.S. Patent 3,789,832) in combination with the shaping of the static magnetic field of the region of interest to generate a spatially localized NMR signal.

Figure 26. NMR image of the breast shows a large mass (dark area) in the central portion of the right breast. T1 data are consistent with the diagnosis of cyst. (mean: 151, width: 239)

Figure 33. "NMR image of the breast shows a large mass (dark area) in the central portion of the right breast. T1 data are consistent with the diagnosis of cyst. (mean: 151, width: 239)" Images published by Drs. Ross, Lie, Thompson & Associates from their FONAR QED 80 MRI scanner installed in their radiology practice in Clevelend, Ohio. QED 80 images were acquired by the step-wise 3D patient translocation method of Indomitable1.
( Radiology Vol.143, No.1, pg 202, April 1982.)

Figure 27. NMR image shows a region of low density in the left breast with elevated T1 values. The small black area in the right breast is compatible with the diagnosis of cyst. (mean: 127, width: 128)

Figure 34. "NMR image shows a region of low density in the left breast with elevated T1 values. The small black area in the right breast is compatible with the diagnosis of cyst. (mean: 127, width: 128)" Images published by Drs. Ross, Lie, Thompson & Associates from their FONAR QED 80 MRI scanner installed in their radiology practice in Clevelend, Ohio. QED 80 images were acquired by the step-wise 3D patient translocation method of Indomitable1.
( Radiology Vol.143, No.1, pg 204, April 1982.)

 
The Bible teaches
“God hath made man Upright”
Ecclesiastes 7:29

 

So Why Not Scan Him the Way
He Was Made ?

 

2001
The Upright MRI Begins

FONAR's Upright MRI scanner
Figure 35.

Patient Seat in Upright MRI watching TV
Figure 36.

A New Era in Diagnosis-The Unequaled Power of Positional, Weight-Bearing MRI
Figure 37.

 
The
Mommy and Me MRI

The Mommy and Me MRI
Figure 38.

The Mommy and Me MRI

The Mommy and Me MRI produced the above (just obtained) infant pictures of a 7 month old child WITHOUT ANESTHESIA with the infant lying in the scanner in a Fonar receiver coil with the mother kneeling and facing into the scanner (opposite to the position shown) holding the child's head. The upper left image of the infant's brain shows the mother's head positioning finger-tips. The brain images obtained exhibit hydrocephalus in the infant together with pronounced CSF pooling suggestive of significant obstruction to the flow of CSF (most likely cervical obstruction) in and out of the brain generating increases in intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral pooling of CSF as visualized in the above brain images of the infant.

Lemelson-MIT Program  Bestows Lifetime Achievement Award to Pioneer of Diagnostic Medicine
Lemelson-MIT Program  Bestows Lifetime Achievement Award to Pioneer of Diagnostic Medicine
Figure 39.

 

THE TRUTH OF HISTORY, THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS – 2 YEARS AFTER THE NOBEL PRIZE

Making Modern Science, A Historical Review, The University of Chicago Press, 2005“By the final few decades of the twentieth century, medical practitioners were exploiting developments in nuclear physics to provide a range of new ways of peering inside the human body …. Another technique developed during the 1970s was MRI (magnetic resonance imaging). The technique was initially developed by Raymond Damadian (1936 -), working at the Downstate Medical Center in New York, making use of the fact that different atomic nuclei emit radio waves of predictable frequencies when exposed to a magnetic field. Damadian noted that tumorous cells emitted signals different from those emitted by healthy tissue and used this as the basis for a new technique for identifying cancers. Damadian and his fellow workers produced the first MRI scan of the human body in 1977.”
(Making Modern Science, A Historical Review, The University of Chicago Press, 2005).

 

THE TRUTH OF HISTORY, SUNY HEALTH SCIENCES CENTER (DOWNSTATE MEDICAL CENTER), BROOKLYN – 5 YEARS AFTER THE NOBEL PRIZE

The Voice, Volime 36, Number 1. Colleagues defend Damadian as inventor of MRI technology
Figure 40.

(Richard Macchia, MD, and Paul Dreizen, MD, in the UUP Voice, the official publication of United University Professions (UUP), State University of New York.)

 

THE TRUTH OF HISTORY, THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE FOR MEDICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ENGINEERING – 6 YEARS AFTER THE NOBEL PRIZE

American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering (AIMBE)
Washington, D.C.

AIMBE Honorary Fellow Award to Raymond Damadian
Figure 41.

SUNY Downstate at 150: A Celebration of Achievement
Figure 42.

SUNY Downstate at 150: A Celebration of Achievement

SUNY Downstate at 150: A Celebration of Achievement

SUNY Downstate at 150: A Celebration of Achievement

SUNY Downstate at 150: A Celebration of Achievement

SUNY Downstate at 150: A Celebration of Achievement

SUNY Downstate at 150: A Celebration of Achievement

 

Nobel Prize for MRI Imaging Denied to Raymond V. Damaina a Decade Ago
Nobel Prize for MRI Imaging Denied to Raymond V. Damadian
Nobel Prize for MRI Imaging Denied to Raymond V. Damadian
Nobel Prize for MRI Imaging Denied to Raymond V. Damadian
Nobel Prize for MRI Imaging Denied to Raymond V. Damadian
Nobel Prize for MRI Imaging Denied to Raymond V. Damadian
Nobel Prize for MRI Imaging Denied to Raymond V. Damadian
Nobel Prize for MRI Imaging Denied to Raymond V. Damadian
Nobel Prize for MRI Imaging Denied to Raymond V. Damadian
Nobel Prize for MRI Imaging Denied to Raymond V. Damadian
Nobel Prize for MRI Imaging Denied to Raymond V. Damadian
Nobel Prize for MRI Imaging Denied to Raymond V. Damadian
Nobel Prize for MRI Imaging Denied to Raymond V. Damadian
Nobel Prize for MRI Imaging Denied to Raymond V. Damadian
Nobel Prize for MRI Imaging Denied to Raymond V. Damadian
Nobel Prize for MRI Imaging Denied to Raymond V. Damadian
Nobel Prize for MRI Imaging Denied to Raymond V. Damadian
Nobel Prize for MRI Imaging Denied to Raymond V. Damadian

 

IN SUMMATION,

ORIGINATION OF THE NMR BODY SCANNING IDEA 

Damadian both originated the idea to scan the human body by NMR (MR) and provided the means (the NMR signal differences) to achieve it. For any scientific advance to occur, someone must generate the idea to bring it about. Damadian provided the idea to give rise to the MRI.

Prior to Damadian's genesis of the NMR body scanning idea in 1969, (Figs. 1,2,3) NMR instruments for obtaining the NMR spectra of test tube samples had been in operation for 23 years. Thousands of research scientists and chemists the world over used NMR spectrometers to obtain spectra of chemical samples, but the idea to use NMR to scan the human body occurred to no one.

For example, without the idea to create an independent self-contained transportable combustion engine, there would be no automobile. Without the idea to transport vehicles by air flotation, there would be no airplanes.

Without the idea to generate light by electricity, there would be no light bulbs and without the idea to scan the human body by NMR there would be no MRI. The idea to scan the human body by NMR originated with Damadian.

Indeed, when Damadian first originated the idea it was ridiculed at a major scientific conference held at the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health in 1976. A distinguished member of the NMR profession and a professor at the Johns Hopkins University at the time presented his successful repeat of Dr. Damadian's NMR measurements of malignant tissue. He went on to report that other non-malignant diseased tissues also had elevated NMR relaxations. Overlooking that both malignant tissues and non-malignant diseased tissues had marked NMR relaxation elevations when compared to normal that would generate marked differences in pixel brightness (contrast) when displayed on an MRI image he announced.

"Therefore any further discussion of scanning
the human body
by NMR is visionary nonsense." (Fig. 19b)
 

At another NMR conference that Dr. Damadian was asked to present at, one of the NMR scientists at the conference stood up after his presentation and asked

"Now Doctor, how fast do you propose to
spin the patient ?" (Fig. 19c)

The focused rf of U.S. Patent 3,789,832 (Fig. 20c, 20e) together with shaping of the static magnetic field provided the means for the spatial localization needed for the in vivo scanning of the 106 (Fig. 21 & Fig.22) anatomic loci (pixels – see Fig. 10) that provided the first MR image of the human body. It was demonstrated at trial that the magnetic component (the "near field" that generates the NMR signal) of the transmitted rf (radio frequency) could be shaped to any dimension desired ("focused") and moved to any location desired1. The focusing of the transmitted rf would be used to systematically generate the NMR signals from spatially localized scanning loci within the body, in order to map the anatomy and detect diseased loci.

NMR test-tube analyzerExcept for Damadian's BOLD IDEA to take the NMR test-tube analyzer and its 2 1/4 inch sample space and totally remake the magnet and its millimeter diameter NMR rf receiver coils* that had been devoted unchanged for more than 23 years, since the inception of NMR, to the chemical analysis of test-tube samples, there would be no MRI today.

Notwithstanding grave doubts that there would be sufficient NMR signal/noise reception to detect a tiny NMR signal from a small voxel (volume element) deep within the interior of the human body, using a receiver coil 10 inches away from the signal generating volume, and still achieve an NMR signal large enough to scan the entire human body, the initiative for the NMR body scanner (MRI) proceeded under the Good Lord's protection and direction (Col. 2:3).

It took Damadian to envision the radically transforming step of taking the traditional 23 year old NMR test-tube analyzer and using it to invent a bold new revolutionary scanner for the entire human body.

*rf transmitter coils, rf receiver coils, pre-amplifiers, rf tuned resonance circuits, etc that had been devoted unchanged for more than 23 years since the inception of NMR to the NMR chemical analysis of test-tube samples.

1: see Fig.32 legend.

 

DISCOVERY OF THE NMR SIGNAL DIFFERENCES TO MAKE THE IMAGE 

Fig.6. He discovered that the NMR signal amplitudes of cancer tissue differ markedly from the NMR signal amplitudes of the normal tissues because of the differences in their rate of decay. Fig 5. The Discovery of the Abnormal Cancer MR RelaxationHaving originated the NMR body scanner idea, Damadian also provided the means to bring it about. He isolated the T1 and T2 tissue NMR relaxation differences (See "T1 and T2 Imaging" section above. Click here) that made it possible. He demonstrated for the first time that the NMR signal from cancer tissue was markedly different from the NMR signals obtained from normal tissues. He further demonstrated in the same 1971 publication in Science (Damadian, R. Tumor Detection by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Science, 171:1151-1153, 1971) that the NMR signals of the normal tissues also differed markedly.

Figure 4. The NMR signal differences discovered by Damadian vary the brightness of the pixels that make up the image

Figure 14 is an axial (cross-sectional) image of the brain showing a tumor of the cerebellum (white areas) in the midline. Figure 14c is a magnified image showing the picture elements or "pixels" (small squares) that make up the image.

The cerebellar tumor as it would appear (D) with no MR signal differences. Figure D is the same image as B but where all MR signal differences were eliminated and all the MR pixels therefore had the same pixel brightness. The absence of the MR signal differences between cancer and normal tissue discovered by Damadian gives the MR image pixels equal brightness and the tumor becomes Invisible.

Were the amplitudes of the NMR signals (fig.9) used to set the brightness of each MRI image pixel the same for all tissues (and prior to Dr. Damadian's discovery such NMR tissue signal differences were not known to exist) the brightness of each image pixel would be the same. The MR image would be a blank.

The NMR signal differences discovered by Damadian (Figs 6,9,tables 1 & 2) vary the brightness of the pixels that make up the image (Figs. 6,9). The signal differences of diseased and normal tissues generate the large differences in pixel brightness that enable all diseased tissues (cancerous as well as non-cancerous) to be exquisitely visualized (fig.3b,10,11-13) by the MRI image. Additionally the exceptional NMR signal differences among the normal tissues discovered by Damadian give rise to the extraordinary detail of normal anatomy visualized by MRI (figs. 7,8)

Except for the marked NMR signal differences between diseased tissues and normal tissues discovered by Damadian and the marked differences of the NMR signals within the normal tissues themselves discovered by Damadian there would be no MRI. It is the tissue NMR signal differences discovered by Damadian that make the MRI image.

 

 

 


The tissue MR (NMR) signal differences discovered by Damadian are the BUILDING BLOCKS from which the MRI IMAGE is CONSTRUCTED.

Without the BUILDING BLOCKS there is no BUILDING!

Without the tissue NMR signal differences needed to construct an image, that were discovered by Damadian (and EXCLUDED by the NP),

THERE IS NOTHING TO MAKE THE IMAGE WITH
and
THERE IS NO MRI!



Fig.6. He discovered that the NMR signal amplitudes of cancer tissue differ markedly from the NMR signal amplitudes of the normal tissues because of the differences in their rate of decay. Fig 5. The Discovery of the Abnormal Cancer MR RelaxationExcept for the NMR signal differences discovered by Damadian to
MAKE THE IMAGE

THERE IS NO IMAGE !

If the NMR signals used to set the brightness of the image pixels do not vary from diseased to normal tissues or within the normal tissues themselves, as discovered by Damadian*, then

THERE IS NOTHING TO MAKE THE MRI IMAGE WITH!

The image pixels that the MR scanner

MAKES THE IMAGE WITH

will all have the same brightness and

THE MRI IMAGE WILL BE A BLANK !

Figure 4. The NMR signal differences discovered by Damadian vary the brightness of the pixels that make up the image
Figure 14 is an axial (cross-sectional) image of the brain showing a tumor of the cerebellum (white areas) in the midline. Figure 14c is a magnified image showing the picture elements or "pixels" (small squares) that make up the image.

The cerebellar tumor as it would appear (D) with no MR signal differences. Figure D is the same image as B but where all MR signal differences were eliminated and all the MR pixels therefore had the same pixel brightness. The absence of the MR signal differences between cancer and normal tissue discovered by Damadian gives the MR image pixels equal brightness and the tumor becomes Invisible.

 

 

 

 

EXCLUDED
 
INTENTIONALLY
 
Figure 19 Nobel Statutes
 

"If a work which is to be rewarded has been produced by two or three persons, the prize shall be awarded to them JOINTLY. In no case may the prize be divided between more than THREE PERSONS." (Nobel Statutes)

The 2003 Nobel Prize for MRI, however was awarded to two persons. P.C. Lauterbur and P. Mansfield, not to the three persons provided for by the Nobel Statutes. The Third Nobel award provided for, and used many times throughout the history of the Nobel Prize, was intentionally VOIDED.

Dr. Damadian was thereby EXCLUDED by the NOBEL (and therefore from history) from any recognition for his critical role in the genesis of the MRI without which MRI WOULD NOT EXIST !

Statues of the Nobel Foundation-cover

 
 
The Nobel Statutes
 

Statutes of the Nobel Foudation-page 3

Thus Dr. Damadian's absence from the Nobel Prize for MRI was not an oversight. He was

EXCLUDED   INTENTIONALLY

Remarkably, EXCLUDING Dr. Damadian constitutes EXCLUDING THE ONE ORIGINATOR WITHOUT WHOM THERE IS NO MRI AT ALL !! It constitutes EXCLUDING the person who for the first time ever in history conceived of the IDEA to use a 23 year old test-tube analyzer (Fig. 18, the NMR test-tube analyzer) to scan the live human body, an idea branded as "visionary nonsense" at the time it was originated (Fig. 19b). It also constitutes EXCLUDING the person who further, for the first time ever, PROVIDED the MEANS to ACHIEVE AN MRI IMAGE.

HE PROVIDED THE SIGNAL TO MAKE THE IMAGE WITH (Figs. 4a, Tables I & II, Fig. 4b, Fig. 6) and WITHOUT WHICH THERE IS NO MRI IMAGE AT ALL !!

It is indisputable that Dr. Damadian is the vital contributor by whom (in accordance with the Nobel Statutes) "the work which is to be awarded has been produced."

Indeed as Professor Henry Wallman, Professor of Mathematics, Massachusetts Institiute of Technology (MIT) stated, "I am of the definite opinion that Dr. Damadian's contribution was both prior to and more fundamental than Dr. Lauterbur's" (underlining included in original [ J. Mattson and M. Simon "The Pioneers of NMR and Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: The Story of MRI" Bar-Ilan University Press (1996), 676 ].

Notwithstanding, Dr. Damadian's vital role in the genesis of MRI and the specific provision of the Nobel Statues to provide the award to up to "THREE PERSONS" "JOINTLY", the Nobel Committee intentionally subverted this option (of the Nobel Statutes) and EXCLUDED Dr. Damadian. Remarkably in VOIDING the third award provided by the Nobel Statutes the Nobel Committee intentionally and untruthfully EXCLUDED the only MRI innovator without whom THERE IS NO MRI AT ALL! They EXCLUDED the innovator who originated the idea (Fig. 17d) of the MR body scanner for medical disease and who proposed for the first time ever that the 23 year old non-invasive NMR analyzer of test-tube samples could be used to scan the live human body to detect disease and without which idea no such scanner could ever come into existence. They also EXCLUDED the only one who DISCOVERED the NMR SIGNAL that could achieve it, the NMR SIGNAL that makes the image and without which THERE IS NO IMAGE!

 
VIOLATION OF THE WILL OF
ALFRED NOBEL
 

For his prize in physics, Nobel specifies it is to be given for the "most important "discovery  OR  invention". For his prize in chemistry, Nobel specifies it is to be given for the "most important chemical discovery  OR  improvement".

In so doing, Nobel defines what a discovery is according to HIS WILL.

 

It is NOT a method !

 

 

Alfred Nobel and the Nobel Prizes

The Will of Alfred Nobel

 
It is NOT a method !

For the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine Nobel RESTRICTS his award to DISCOVERY ONLY! ( no OR ) "one part to the person who shall have made the most important discovery ( no OR ) within the domain of physiology or medicine".

HIS WILL does not authorize a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for a METHOD or TECHNIQUE.

The only DISCOVERY regarding the genesis of MRI was the DISCOVERY by Damadian—for the first time ever—of the existence of the abnormal SIGNAL (NMR signal) of diseased tissues that MAKE THE IMAGE ! (Figs. 3, 6, Tables 1 & 2)

The subsequent developments by Lauterbur and Mansfield were exclusively METHODS that were generated to implement the Damadian SIGNAL DISCOVERY.

Indeed, in their October 6, 2003 Press Release (see following document) description of the contributions of Mansfield and Lauterbur, the Nobel Assembly of the Karolinska Institute reports Mansfield's contribution as an analysis which "made it possible to develop a useful imaging TECHNIQUE" and that his contribution was "an essential step in order to obtain a practical METHOD". Thus the Nobel Assembly in their award announcement specifies Manfield's contribution solely as a METHOD or a TECHNIQUE for obtaining an MR image from tissue NMR SIGNAL differences DISCOVERED by Damadian, where a METHOD or a TECHNIQUE does not qualify for a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine under Alfred Nobel's will. Likewise, the Nobel Assembly in describing Lauterbur's contribution cited it as the introduction of magnetic field gradients that "made it possible to create two-dimensional images of structures that could not be visualized by other TECHNIQUES" and that "made it possible to build up two-dimensional pictures of structures that could not be visualized with other METHODS."

In fact the Nobel Assembly, apparently aware that their 2003 award did not comply with the requirement of Alfred Nobel's Will to award the Prize for

DISCOVERY ONLY

in the case of Physiology or Medicine, deliberately contorted the award citation to say their "discoveries" concerning "magnetic resonance imaging" knowing full well that their cited "discoveries" were not "discoveries" at all in accordance with Alfred Nobel's Will but were instead entirely

METHODS

that did not qualify for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine under Alfred Nobel's Will.

At the same time, remarkably, they EXCLUDED the one innovation that WAS THE GENUINE DISCOVERY required by Alfred Nobel's Will that ORIGINATED the MRI and did comply with Alfred Nobel's Will.

Accordingly, the contributions of Lauterbur and Mansfield are EXCLUSIVELY METHODS and TECHNIQUES for implementing DAMADIAN'S genuine DISCOVERY of the abnormal SIGNAL that DETECTS DISEASED TISSUE and MAKES THE IMAGE (Figs. 14, 5). At the same time the real DISCOVERY (and the only DISCOVERY, The discovery of the abnormal NMR signal of diseased tissue that makes DISEASED TISSUE VISIBLE ON AN MRI IMAGE and the DISCOVERY of the different NMR signals generated by the body's normal tissues themselves that makes the explicit ANATOMIC DETAIL of the body's VITAL ORGANS VISIBLE FOR THE FIRST TIME EVER IN MEDICAL HISTORY, MRI) that generated the MRI was EXCLUDED from the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in Explicit Violation of Alfred Nobel's Will.

 

2003 Nobel Prize in Medicine Press Release
2003 Nobel Prize in Medicine Press Release

2003 Nobel Prize in Medicine Press Release

 

 
Idea-discovery compApart from Damadian's bold and courageous
IDEA
to take a 23 year old 2¼ inch test-tube analyzer (Fig 18) and turn it into a non-invasive scanner for detecting disease in the live human body (Figs 1,2,3,20e)

and


Apart from Damadian's
DISCOVERY
        of the disease detecting signal to do it with

(Figs 3,4a,4b,9,11: tables 1 & 2)


THERE WOULD BE NO MRI TODAY !!

 

 

In so far as
Without Edison there is no Light Bulb
Without Alexander Bell there is no Telephone
Without the Wright Brothers there is no Airplane
Without Damadian there is no MRI*


*as affirmed by
THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES,
THE NATIONAL INVENTORS HALL OF FAME,
THE UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT.

 

"but in the end
THE TRUTH WILL OUT"
William Shakespeare (1598 AD)
"The Merchant of Venice"
Launcelot Gobbo to Old Gobbo (Launcelot's father)
 

TIMELINE of MRI

Damadian's Discovery

FONAR Position Regarding Nobel Prize

Dr. Damadian Interview - online
(requires a computer with a sound card)

Alfred Nobel's Will

The Economist celebrates innovation at the 2nd Annual Innovation Awards and Summit in San Francisco

dotted line
Expressions of Outrage Over The Nobel Prize in Medicine for the MRI by The Friends of Raymond Damadian
The Shameful Wrong That Must Be Righted
October 9, 10, 2003 (text version) (pdf file)
The two winner's acknowledge that their work grew out of Dr. Damadian's prior discoveries in magnetic resonance - Proof that this shameful wrong must be righted - October 20, 2003
October 20, 2003 (text version) (pdf file)
30 years of proof that this shameful wrong must be righted - October 30, 2003
October 30, 2003 (text version) (pdf file)
A personal letter to my fellow medical doctors about this shameful wrong - November 3, 2003
November 3, 2003 (text version) (pdf file)
Visual proof that this shameful wrong must be righted
November 11, 2003 (text version) (pdf file)
The shameful wrong that is a flagrant violation of Alfred Nobel's will - November 20, 2003
November 20, 2003 (text version) (pdf file)
The shameful wrong that must be righted - because the truth can be found simply by opening a medical textbook on MRI. December 2, 2003
December 2, 2003 (text version) (pdf file)
This is the great voyage of scientific discovery that gave the world the MRI. It will be ignored on the shameful night of December 10th.
December 9, 2003 (text version) (pdf file)


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